Inference, explanation, and models in sciences

Coordinator: Raffaella Campaner


The research of this group focuses from a theoretical, practical and, partly, historical perspective, on the organic connections existing between philosophical reflections and scientific knowledge, also in relation to the special sciences and technology, and of logic with its specific methods and its applications. Research is carried out with particular reference to the fields of modelling, computation and artificial intelligence, epistemology and representation of knowledge, medicine and social and life sciences, classical and non-classical logics, theory of argumentation and rationality.


  • SH4_13 Philosophy of science, epistemology, logic
  • SH4_7 Reasoning, decision-making; intelligence

Group members

Francesco Bianchini

Associate Professor

Guido Gherardi

Associate Professor

Eugenio Orlandelli

Senior assistant professor (fixed-term)

Daniele Sgaravatti

Associate Professor


  • Vasco Brattka; Guido Gherardi, Completion of choice, «ANNALS OF PURE AND APPLIED LOGIC», 2021, 172, Article number: 102914, pp. 1 – 30
  • Vasco Brattka; Guido Gherardi, Weihrauch goes Brouwerian, «THE JOURNAL OF SYMBOLIC LOGIC», 2020, 85, pp. 1614 – 1653
  • Francesco Bianchini, A New Definition of “Artificial” for Two Artificial Sciences, «FOUNDATIONS OF SCIENCE», 2021, pp. 1 - 17
  • Francesco Bianchini, Virtually Extending the Bodies with (Health) Technologies, in: A Critical Reflection on Automated Science. Will Science Remain Human?, Cham, Springer, 2020, pp. 235 – 245.
  • Giovanni Boniolo, Raffaella Campaner, 2022. The logic of explanation in molecular biology: historical-processual and logical-procedural aspects. DOI:10.1007/s13194-022-00445-1. pp.1-24. In EUROPEAN JOURNAL FOR PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE -vol. 12 (1)
  • Giovanni Boniolo, Raffaella Campaner, M. Carrara, Patient Similarity in the Era of Precision Medicine: A Philosophical Analysis, «ERKENNTNIS», 2021, 87, pp. 1 – 22
  • Raffaella Campaner; Matteo Cerri, Manipulative evidence and medical interventions: some qualifications, «HISTORY AND PHILOSOPHY OF THE LIFE SCIENCES», 2020, 42, Article number: 15, pp. 1 - 15
  • Guido Gherardi; Paolo Maffezioli; Eugenio Orlandelli, Interpolation in Extensions of First-Order Logic, «STUDIA LOGICA», 2020, 108, pp. 619 - 648
  • Eugenio Orlandelli, Labelled calculi for quantified modal logics with definite descriptions, «JOURNAL OF LOGIC AND COMPUTATION», 2021, 31, pp. 923 – 946.
  • Daniele Sgaravatti, Experience and Reasoning: Challenging the A Priori/A Posteriori Distinction in Synthese. Vol. 197, numero 3, 2020, pp. 1127-1148.
  • Daniele Sgaravatti, The ‘If’ in the ‘What if’, Topoi vol. 38, numero 4, 2019 pp. 811-820